A common question on the newsgroups is "what will happen if a SQLCLR procedure allocates a huge chunk of memory or enters a tight, endless loop" by mistake? DBAs are concerned about any language with a looping construct (they've likely coded the tight, endless loop in T-SQL to see) or a malloc or equivalent. The BOL suggests any loop should call Sleep(0) but sleeping is not always the same as yielding.
SQL Server 2005 does respond to memory pressure in a concerted manner releasing buffers and ending procedures if needed. So you might see an error similar to this under memory pressure or if you allocate "too much memory":
Msg 6532, Level 16, State 49, Procedure MyProc, Line 0
.NET Framework execution was aborted by escalation policy because of out of memory.
However, SQL Server doesn't consider "being busy" an error condition. Suppose there was a batch process that actually did run for a long time? In the case of the endless loop, if the server has other work to do, SQL Server 2005 will force a CLR thread to yield and "punish" it (timeslice-wise). This is visible using a dynamic management view, sys.dm_clr_tasks, in the field "force_yield_count". When in an endless loop, this field increases, but SQL Server does not kill the task.