Every time you execute a query against SQL Server, it goes through optimization and compilation and a query plan is generated. Most of the time that plan goes into cache (there’s always exceptions, which is a discussion for a separate time), which means that the next time that query executes, SQL Server can use the same plan. Now, re-using the same plan is typically a good thing; SQL Server doesn’t have to go through full optimization and compilation again. But sometimes that plan isn’t ideal for the query and you want to remove it from the plan cache. You can do this manually. Plans can also age out if they’re not being used, but if I want to purposely evict a plan from cache, I have several options:
- issue sp_recompile for the object
- use DBCC FREEPROCCACHE with a plan_handle to remove a specific plan from cache
- use DBCC FLUSHPROCINDB (<database_id>) to remove all plans for a database from cache
- issue ALTER SCOPED CONFIGURATION CLEAR PROCEDURE_CACHE to remove all plans for a database from cache
- use DBCC FREEPROCCACHE to remove *all* plans from cache
Ideally, you should remove only what’s absolutely necessary. Using DBCC FREEPROCCACHE is a sledgehammer approach and typically creates a spike in CPU as all subsequent queries need to have their plans re-generated. Glenn gives examples on how to use each statement (and others) in his post Eight Different Ways to Clear the SQL Server Plan Cache, and I want to show you one more thing that happens when you clear a plan (or all plans) from cache.
For this demo script, I recommend running it against a TEST/DEV/QA environment because I am removing plans from cache which can adversely affect performance.
We’ll run one statement and one stored procedure multiple times against the WideWorldImporters database:
/* Create a stored procedure to use for testing */ USE [WideWorldImporters]; GO DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS [Application].[usp_GetCountryInfo]; GO CREATE PROCEDURE [Application].[usp_GetCountryInfo] @Country_Name NVARCHAR(60) AS SELECT * FROM [Application].[Countries] 1 JOIN [Application].[StateProvinces] [s] ON [s].[CountryID] = 1.[CountryID] WHERE 1.[CountryName] = @Country_Name; GO /* Remove everything from cache */ DBCC FREEPROCCACHE; GO /* Run the stored procedure 20 times */ EXECUTE [Application].[usp_GetCountryInfo] N'United States'; GO 20 /* Run the query 20 times */ SELECT [s].[StateProvinceName], [s].[SalesTerritory], [s].[LatestRecordedPopulation], [s].[StateProvinceCode] FROM [Application].[Countries] 1 JOIN [Application].[StateProvinces] [s] ON [s].[CountryID] = 1.[CountryID] WHERE 1.[CountryName] = 'United States'; GO 20
Now let’s see what’s in cache, and what’s also in sys.dm_exec_query_stats (which gives us execution statistics).
SELECT [qs].[last_execution_time], [qs].[execution_count], [qs].[total_logical_reads]/[qs].[execution_count] [AvgLogicalReads], [qs].[max_logical_reads], [t].1, [p].[query_plan] FROM sys.dm_exec_query_stats [qs] CROSS APPLY sys.dm_exec_sql_text([qs].sql_handle) [t] CROSS APPLY sys.dm_exec_query_plan([qs].[plan_handle]) [p] WHERE [t].1 LIKE '%Application%'; GO
Cool, I see that each one executed 20 times, and in addition to the text and the plan I pulled information about I/Os.
Now let’s clear procedure cache, and we’ll take the good old sledgehammer approach because we’re lazy and run DBCC FREEPROCACHE. Then run the query to see what’s in sys.dm_exec_query_stats…
Do you see what happened? In addition to removing the plan, we also lost all the query execution stats from dm_exec_query_stats. We have no history about query performance (unless we were writing it to another table on a regular basis, or have a third-party tool that captures baselines). If you don’t believe me, just run SELECT * FROM sys.dm_exec_query_stats…all that data is gone (but will start to re-populate as you run queries and plans go into cache).
This is important to know! If you’re troubleshooting a performance issue and you want to try removing the plan from cache, be aware that you’re removing execution statistics too (and maybe save those off first in case you need them for reference/comparison later).